Head pain affects millions of people worldwide, commanding a spectrum of discomfort from common headaches to debilitating migraine attacks. Yet, shockingly, fewer than 5% of sufferers have received formal diagnoses and proper healthcare.
Understanding the differences between migraines vs. headaches is essential for effective management and relief. Today we’ll discuss the big difference between headaches, recognized for affecting an estimated 50% of adults around the world, and migraines, cited as one of the 10 most disabling medical illnesses on Earth. We’ll dive into the various types and phases of headaches and migraines, explore their root causes, and discuss potential treatments to take control of your head pain.
Breaking it Down: Headaches vs. Migraines
Headaches cause discomfort or pain ranging from dull to acute in the head, face, or upper neck. They can vary in intensity, frequency, duration, and category based on their underlying causes, which we’ll explore below.
The key note here is that headaches are a symptom of migraine disease. Migraine, on the other hand, is a neurological disorder. Migraine attacks are much more severe and result in severe debilitation and pain, often on one side of the head, along with accompanying symptoms such as nausea, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. These episodes can last anywhere from a few hours to many days, described by four distinct cycles and stages.
Types of Headaches:
There are several types of headaches, each with distinct characteristics, symptoms, and underlying causes. We’ll discuss the most common below:
- Tension Headaches: Tension headaches are the most common type of headache. Individuals with tension headaches often describe a constant, dull ache on both sides of the head. Common triggers include stress, anxiety, or muscle tension in the neck and shoulders.
- Cluster Headaches: Cluster headaches are excruciatingly painful headaches that occur in clusters or patterns, usually on one side of the head. Attacks can last from 15 minutes to 3 hours. During cluster periods, they occur several times daily (or close to daily) for weeks or months, followed by remission periods. Many cite these headaches as the most debilitating of their kind.
- Sinus Headaches: Sinus headaches often correlate with inflammation in the sinus cavities, resulting from conditions such as sinusitis, allergies, or infections, which cause the sinus passages to become swollen and congested. Individuals with sinus headaches typically feel pain in the forehead, cheeks, and around the eyes. Other symptoms include such as facial tenderness, pressure, nasal congestion, and post-nasal drip, where mucus drips down the back of the throat.
- Hormonal Headaches: Hormonal headaches are a type of headache closely tied to hormonal fluctuations, predominantly affecting women during menstruation, pregnancy, or menopause. These headaches occur due to changes in estrogen and progesterone levels during menstruation, hormonal shifts during gestation, and declining estrogen levels during menopause.
Types of Migraine
Let's further classify migraine into various subtypes based on their specific symptoms and characteristics:
- Migraine with Aura: Migraine with aura, which is also known as “classic migraine”, is accompanied by sensory disturbances known as “auras”. Auras’ hallmarks include visual disturbances, such as flashing lights or blind spots, and sensory changes like tingling or numbness. In some cases, auras can also affect speech and language, causing difficulties in articulating words or understanding language.
- Ocular Migraine: Ocular migraines, also known as retinal migraines, are not to be confused with aura. These migraine attacks involve short bouts of vision loss, blindness, or visual disturbances in only one eye. It is important to note that loss of vision in one eye isn't related to migraine, and is generally caused by another, more serious, underlying condition. If you experience visual loss in one eye, be sure to see a health care provider right away for prompt treatment.
- Menstrual Migraine: 60% of women experiencing migraine symptoms have observed a correlation between their menstrual cycle and migraine attacks. These migraines, similar to menstrual headaches, coincide with hormonal fluctuations occurring during a woman's menstrual cycle. Menstrual migraine often starts before or during a woman’s period; common symptoms include a dull throbbing or severe pulsing headache, sensitivity to light, nausea, fatigue, and dizziness.
- Vestibular Migraine: Vestibular migraines can be particularly distressing, as the resulting dizziness and balance problems may last for several minutes to hours. Althoguh vestibular migraineurs report no pain 50% of the time, they experience episodes of dizziness described as rocking, spinning, and lightheadedness. These attacks involve specific triggers that affect certain members of the population.
We highly recommend consulting a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and personalized management strategies to begin your path to minimize the effects of migraine attacks on your daily life.
A Look at the Causes Behind Your Head Pain
Understanding the root causes of headaches vs. migraines can be essential in effectively managing and preventing them. While the exact causes are not always clear, here is a list of common factors contributing to head pain:
- Triggers: The most controllable factor contributing to your head pain: both headaches and migraine can be triggered by various factors, such as stress, lack of sleep, certain foods (e.g., processed meats, cheese, MSG, chocolate, etc), dehydration, and environmental factors like strong smells or loud noises.
- Neurological Factors: Migraines, especially, are thought to involve changes in brain activity that affect blood flow and neurotransmitter levels. Common players in migraine pathophysiology include CSD, serotonin, and the trigeminal nerve.
- Genetics: Family history plays a large role in determining susceptibility to migraine disease; in fact, it is estimated that up to 60% of migraineurs inherited the disease in their genes.
- Hormonal Changes: Fluctuations in hormones, particularly estrogen, correlate with migraine and headaches in women, contributing to their wide prevalence in women.
- Underlying Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as sinus infections, head injuries, and temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJ), can also trigger specific subtypes of headaches or migraines.
Get Ahead of Your Head Pain: Treatments
Regardless of your head pain, headaches and migraines alike can be debilitating obstacles in one’s daily life. We'll wrap up by talking best, healthy, and holistic practices to manage them:
- Lifestyle Modifications: Identifying and avoiding triggers, maintaining a regular sleep schedule, staying hydrated, and managing stress can significantly reduce the frequency and intensity of headaches and migraine attacks. Adopting a healthy lifestyle with regular exercise, balanced nutrition, and stress-reduction techniques like mindfulness or yoga can be highly beneficial.
- Non-Medical Therapies: Alternative therapies like acupuncture, biofeedback, and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) have shown promise in reducing the frequency and intensity of headaches and migraine attacks for some individuals.
- Trigger-Free Foods: Finally, as we like to often discuss here: paying attention to your diet and avoiding trigger foods known to exacerbate headaches and migraines is essential to your head pain management. Common trigger foods include processed meats, aged cheeses, nuts, chocolate, caffeine, alcohol, and foods containing additives like MSG (monosodium glutamate). Keeping a food diary can help identify potential triggers and guide dietary adjustments.
In summary, understanding the differences between headaches vs. migraines is crucial in determining the most effective treatment plan to manage your head pain. By identifying triggers, adopting healthy lifestyle habits, and seeking appropriate medical care, individuals can gain control over their head pain and improve their quality of life. If you experience chronic or severe head pain, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional for a proper diagnosis and personalized treatment approach. Remember, you don't have to suffer in silence; help is available to manage and alleviate your head pain.